ABC’s of Manual Cleaning Part III: How does Manual Cleaning Work?

Part III

In this part, we address the key question: how is the manual cleaning process typically implemented? A robust manual cleaning program is generally an integration of the best of science and management – which go into developing Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) that should be well-understood by the employees implementing the program.

Assess the TACTER Parameters

The TACT circle was originally developed by Dr. Herbert Sinner in 1960. This model lists the parameters needed to remove soil from a surface. Remco has added two parameters, “Employees” and “Resources,” to make it a holistic model for effective cleaning. Please refer to the comments I made on the TACTER section notes in the 5S White Paper:

Where a thick layer of allergens, foreign matter, or biofilms build up on a surface, the TACTER requirements are intensified, such as a worker needing to do intense manual scrubbing to remove such contaminants.

Evaluate Cleaning Program Considerations

The SAVER2 model was developed by Remco to assist with understanding the points necessary to build a comprehensive cleaning and sanitation program:

The following important questions are taken into consideration:

  • What type of Surface is being decontaminated?
  • What is the nature of the Soil being removed or reduced to an acceptable level?
  • What is the Aim of the decontamination action?
  • What step-by-step decontamination Activity is being implemented?
  • Is the decontamination process Validated?
  • Is the decontamination process adequately Verified?
  • How Effective is the decontamination activity?
  • How Efficient is the decontamination activity?
  • Are the processes supported by valid scientific, technical, or credible References?
  • Are Remedial actions being put in place to correct or prevent anything significant that could go wrong?

Cleaning decisions must be risk-based

Depending on the nature of the soil, surface, and other cleaning considerations, the site may decide to conduct dry-cleaning, wet-cleaning, or controlled wet-cleaning:


Dry-cleaning, where little or no water is used, is normally practiced in environments where low water activity foods (e.g. flour, milk powder, biscuits, etc.) are manufactured. This is because the introduction of water could provide a medium for microbial growth. However, care is taken not to aerosolize allergen ingredients in the process, as this could create cross-contact issues.

In wet-cleaning, water is used for removing soluble or emulsified soils from the surface. This is the most common method in operations processing high water-activity foods (e.g. meat, beverages, etc.). The biggest drawbacks faced in such environments are problems related to condensation and waste-water issues.

However, in several food plants, controlled wet cleaning at a separate sanitation station is conducted to avoid any contamination or aerosolization occurrences. This may be done to clean small equipment pieces or even large, dismantled tanks.


Document and implement the cleaning steps clearly

More importantly, employees implementing and maintaining the cleaning program must be well-educated and trained on the cleaning tasks. For a wet-cleaning operation, the following are the cleaning steps:

  • Secure equipment, disassemble, and dry-clean to remove gross debris.
  • Pre-rinse equipment surfaces with potable water, from top to bottom.
  • Apply detergent and foam, and scrub from bottom to top.
  • Post-rinse with potable water and conduct self-inspection (by the operator).
  • Conduct a formal post-sanitation inspection (usually done by QC).
  • Sanitize (with approved sanitizer) and assemble the equipment.
  • Dry equipment and let a supervisor verify as part of the pre-op inspection.


Using the right detergents and approved sanitizer concentrations is critical to ensuring cleaning effectiveness.


Next Steps

In our next blog, we’ll discuss how to set the frequency and locations for manual cleaning. Stay tuned!


Selected References: